About Hunting grounds characteristics

1.1 Geographic orientation and orographic conditions

    Hunting grounds are situated mainly in the orographic system of Juhoslovenské (southern Slovak) basins and partially also in the Slovenské rudohorie mountains (Hromádka 1956). Orographic unit Lučenská basin as a part orographic system of Juhoslovenské basins covers the largest part of the Forestry territory. The border between Cinobanské foothill and Lučenská basin is formed by the line passing through Kalinovo – Breznička – Zelené – Poltár – Pondelok - Selce. Lučenská basin consits of four wide tracks of floodplains accompanied by plistocene terraces along the Ipeľ River and its main tributaries and a wold platform. This one is separated by a dense net of valleys and ravines without streams. The ridges are very weak, nearly flat. They face mainly towards east and west. In the rough features southern exposition prevail the northern ones. Lučenská basin is characterized by the simplicity of its surface and belongs to intravolcanic wake. It is covered by a layer of diluvial loess loam covering tertiary sediments belonging to Oligocene, milocene and plieocene. This layer contains gravel, sand, sandstones and clays. The lowest point is the Petrovec Brook (191 above sea level) near the village Pinciná.  

1.2  Hydrological and rainfall conditions

   The hunting grounds territory belongs to the Danube and the Ipeľ river basin which has weakly developed river system to both sides. The system is young in development, therefore pororus. The Ipeľ is a river of oligocene and neogene regions because its basin is mainly based on oligocene and neogene sediments with volcanic series. In the Neogene orogenic processes were the main determinant of the development of the Ipeľ river system which broke its path through valleys separating the crystalline-Mesozoic zone and the Western Carpathians from volcanic zone. The characteristic Ipeľ basin pattern is predominantly of hydrological nature of the volcanic layers that built the prevailing part of the basin. Significant tributaries of the Ipeľ river in the hunting grounds are the Poltarica, the Petrovec and Maštín brooks and Šťavica.

  The rainfall conditions, one of the most important growth factors, are characterized by average yearly total and a yearly rainfall cycle. The hunting grounds territory belongs to warm region climate district A4 – warm, mildly dry with cold winter with annual rainfall of cca 600mm.

  In the long-time average of the whole year, February has the lowest rainfall whilst May has the maximum. Then the average rainfall decreases until October, when it starts to raise again.    

1.3 Temperature and wind conditions

   Similarly as the rainfall the division of temperature is influenced not only by the geographic location, but also by the relief of the area. The area of the hunting grounds is warm with the average temperature is 8 C°. The coldest month of the year is January, the hottest one is July. The average temperature of the growing season is 15 C°. The temperature characteristic is complemented by the beginning and ending of the period with average day temperatures of 5 C° and higher which are derived from the development of monthly temperatures and the real number of days with the mentioned temperature. The growing season lasts 230 days beginning on 26.-28.III. and ending on 4.-6.XI.

   Most winds come from northwest and west directions. Least come from south and east. Windlessness occurs in summer or autumn months, usually at the end of the summer or the beginning of the autumn. Windy period is at the beginning of growing season in April, sometimes already in March. Winds with strength of 5 Beauf do not outreach 1%. Winds of 2-4 Beauf strength represent 24%, winds of 0-1 Beauf represent 75% of total amount.

 1.4 Geological and land conditions

   The area is situated in the Carpathian mountain region which came into being in a long and complicated process. They were corrugated several times, overflown by the sea and recorrugated. Volcanic activity at the end of Tertiary shaped the Carpathians to the present form. Origin and geologic structure of valleys is related to the overall development of the   West Carpathian mountain system. After corrugation of Flysch Mountains, transgression took place during older neogene and the sea flooded the lower parts near the shore and entered the valleys inside the Carpathians. At the end of older Miocene the sea retreated. Later in younger neogene was the connection with the sea interrupted entirely. Rivers supplied lakes and outer sea bays with water from the Carpathians and salty sea water was replaced by fresh sweet water. Low parts of valleys are filled by the layers of younger sea sediments (basal conglomerates, limestone, marl, marly clays). The sea sediments are covered by freshwater sediments (clays, freshwater limestone, gravel, sand).

     The sea finally retreated in late Neogene in Pliocene. Lake sediments were covered by earthbound river (gravel, sand, slurry clays) and wind sediments (loess, clays).  

   Forest soil is the result of complicated pedogenic processes with continuously changing dynamics of soil character (physical, chemical, biotechnic, biological) conditioning the formation of the soil type with given layout and several important morphological and stratigraphic features. The soil profile has usually several horizons different in their arrangement, chemistry, structure, granularity, colour, depth, humidity and consistence. Its image consists of the following soil forming factors:    

Base rock

  • ·
  • ·Relief
  • ·Climate
  • ·Age
  • ·Human activity 

1.5 Fytocenologic conditions and evaluation of ground wood growing conditions

     In the hunting grounds territory is extended oak forest which makes part of the Lučenec Basin. Line B is represented by hornbeam forests (Carpineto- Quercetum). This group of forest type has been under the human influence for the longest period of time. The land has ochre tones and on the covering of slurry clays it is usually without skelet. Humification is often faster. Comminities have grasslike character, with a predominance of Kentucky bluegrass. Wetter types show increased number of hairgrass and pimpernel. The present state of vegetation and prevailing sprout cerium forest is the result of sprout keeping. Hornbeam and shrub layer (juniper) is a natural part of communities.

       District office Lučenec department of Hunting included in the decision No. 134/34/93 from 28.6.1994 to the hunting grounds Petrovec the area of forest grounds 1462,87 ha and agricultural grounds 3008,53 ha.

District Office of Forestry in Lučenec

The main group of forest type is Carpineto-Quercetum

Tab. 1.1 Regulated basic states for the Petrovec hunting grounds 


Game kind

Regulated basic states

Gender proportion

Increase index

Fallow deer




Roe deer

























 Petrovec hunting grounds are the part of roe deer hunting grounds S XIV Lučenec- south and fallow deer grounds D13 Kalinovo, into the first quality class. Increase index of fallow deer game is 1,0. Regulated basic state of fallow deer game in the Petrovec hunting grounds is 187 pieces.